Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2024-01-31
Page range: 245-275
Abstract views: 27
PDF downloaded: 3

A review and analysis of the infrageneric classifications published or used for Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) from 2001 to the present, with reference to those published up to 2000

Ria Olivier Herbarium, Department of Botany, Nelson Mandela University, P.O. Box 77000, Gqeberha, 6031 South Africa
section series subgenus taxonomic history valid publication Eudicots

Abstract

The infrageneric classifications used or proposed for, and infrageneric names and combinations published in, Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) from 2001 to the present are analysed. Only the ranks of subgenus, section, and series are involved; no new names or new combinations were published at other infrageneric ranks. The pertinent works of Gehrig et al. (early-2000s [2001]), Descoings (early- and mid-2000s [2003, 2006]), Smith & Figueiredo (late-2010s [2018]), Smith (early-2020s [2020–2023]), Shtein & Smith (early-2020s [2021]), and Smith et al. (early-2020s [2021]) were assessed to clarify the use of infrageneric ranks by these authors, and to determine which of these names have been validly published and are available for use in Kalanchoe. From this analysis of the infrageneric classifications of Kalanchoe during a period of just less than 25 years it is evident that: (1) one new subgenus name was validly published by Descoings in 2006 [K. subg. Calophygia]; (2) one new combination at the rank of subgenus was validly published by Smith & Figueiredo in 2018 [K. subg. Kitchingia]; (3) one new subgenus name was validly published by Smith in 2020 [K. subg. Fernandesiae]; (4) one new combination was validly published at the rank of section by Smith in 2020 [K. sect. Stellatipilosae]; (5) one new section name was validly published by Smith in 2021 [K. sect. Alatae]; (6) one new section name [K. sect. Invasores] and one new series name [K. ser. Vilana] were validly published by Shtein and Smith in 2021; (7) one new section name was validly published by Smith in 2022 [K. sect. Raveta]; (8) and (9) two new section names [K. sect. Rhombopilosae and K. sect. Streptanthae] were validly published by Smith in 2023; (10) one new combination [K. sect. Trichanthae] was validly published at the rank of section by Smith in 2023; (11) one, by then, existing section, K. sect. Alatae, was elevated to the rank of subgenus by Smith in 2023; and (12) one existing subgenus, K. subg. Calophygia, was reinstated and its circumscription substantially amended by Smith in 2023.

References

  1. Adanson, M. (1763) Familles des plantes. Contenant une Préface Historike sur l’état ancien & actuel de la Botanike, & une Téorie de cette Science. II. Partie. Chez Vincent, Imprimeur-Libraire de Mgr le Comte de Provence, rue S, Severin, Paris, 640 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/6958#page/794/mode/1up]
  2. Ascherson, P.[F.] & Schweinfurth, G.[A.] (1889) Illustration de la Flore d’Égypte. [Kalanchoe deficiens, as Calenchoë [sic] deficiens, on p. 79.] Mémoires de l’Institut Égyptien [Cairo] 2: 25–259. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/188382#page/101/mode/1up]
  3. Baillon, M.H. (1885) Liste des plantes de Madagascar (suite de la page 464). [Kalanchoe § Kitchingia]. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Paris (Paris) 1 (59): 465–472. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/41447#page/60/mode/1up]
  4. Baker, J.G. (1881) Notes on a collection of flowering plants made by L. Kitching, Esq., in Madagascar in 1879 (Plates VII. & VIII.). Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 18: 264–281. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/8373#page/271/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1881.tb01257.x
  5. Baker, J.G. (1882) Contributions to the flora of central Madagascar (to be continued). Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, London 20: 109–114. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/35873#page/125/mode/1up]
  6. Baker, J.G. (1883) Contributions to the flora of Madagascar.—Part I. Polypetalæ [Plates XXII & XXIII]. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (London) 20: 87–158. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/8375#page/94/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1883.tb00195.x
  7. Baker, J.G. (1887) Further contributions to the flora of Madagascar. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (London) 22: 441–537. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/8378#page/448/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1887.tb00472.x
  8. Baker, J.G. (1890) Further contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. (Plates L.-LIII.). Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (London) 25: 294–350. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/8381#page/371/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1890.tb02402.x
  9. Baker, J.G. (1892) New or noteworthy plants. Kalanchoe marmorata, Baker, n. sp. The Gardeners’ Chronicle. [A weekly illustrated journal of Horticulture and Allied Subjects], 3rd ser., XII (No. 298): 300. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83803#page/316/mode/1up]
  10. Baker, J.G. (1895) CCCCLXXV.—Diagnoses africanæ, VII. (continued from p. 153) [Kalanchoe somaliensis Baker on p. 214]. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1895: 211–230. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127378#page/215/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.2307/4114977
  11. Balfour, I.B. filius (1882) 4. Diagnoses Plantarum novarum et imperfecte descriptarum Phanerogamarum Socotrensium; quas elaboravit Bayley Balfour, Scientiae Doctor et in Universitate Glascuensi rerum botanicarum regius professor. Pars Prima. [49. Kalanchoe farinacea Balf.f., 50. K. robusta Balf.f; and 51. K. abrupta Balf.f, on p. 512]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 11(110): 498–514. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/191353#page/534/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1017/S0370164600047702
  12. Berger, A. (1930) Crassulaceae. Unterfam. II. Kalanchoideae [sic, Kalanchooideae]. 6. Kalanchoe Adanson. 7. Kitchingia Baker. 8. Bryophyllum Salisb. In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, edn 2, 18a. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 378–386, 402–412.
  13. Bhatti, M. (2018) Isolation and estimation of sterolic components and in-vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaves and stems of Kalanchoe pinnatum [sic, pinnata] and Kalanchoe crenata. Independently published [Chandigarh University], place of publication not stated, [212] pp.
  14. Boiteau, P. (1947) Les plantes grasses de Madagascar. [Overview of sections in Kalanchoe.] Cactus (Paris) 1947 (12): 5–10, figures 1–4.
  15. Boiteau, P. & Allorge-Boiteau, L. (1995) Kalanchoe (Crassulacées) de Madagascar. Systématique, écophysiologie et phytochimie. ICSN, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, Éditions Karthala, Paris, 252 pp.
  16. Boiteau, P. & Mannoni, O. (1948) Les Kalanchoe (suite). Section I. Kitchingia. [§ 1. Sylvaticae and § 2. Campanulatae.] (à suivre). Cactus (Paris) 1948 (13): 7–10, figures 1–6.
  17. Boiteau, P. & Mannoni, O. (1949) Les Kalanchoe (suite). [§ 8. Streptanthae] (à suivre). Cactus (Paris) 1949 (22): 113–114, two unnumbered figures.
  18. Boom, B.K. & Zeilinga, A.E. (1964) Kalanchoe ×vadensis spec. nova. Succulenta [Netherlands] 43 (9): 122–124.
  19. Britten, J. (1871) Order L. Crassulaceae. 4. Kalanchoe, Linn.; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. Pl. i. 659. In: Oliver, D. (Ed.) Flora of Tropical Africa (Leguminosae to Ficoideae) 2. L. Reeve & Co., London, pp. 390–398. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124#page/391/mode/1up]
  20. Brown, N.E. (1902) New or noteworthy plants. Kalanchoe kirkii, N. E. Brown (n. sp.). The Gardeners’ Chronicle. [A weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects], third series, 32(No. 816): 110–111. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/83820#page/136/mode/1up]
  21. Brown, N.E. (1913) 1436. Kalanchoe sexangularis, N. E. Brown [Crassulaceae]. In: XVII.—Diagnoses africanae LIII. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1913 (3): 120–121. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43726#page/125/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.2307/4115096
  22. Brummitt, R.K. & Powell, C.E. (1992) Authors of plant names. A list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 732 pp.
  23. Candolle, A.P., de. (1802) Plantarum historia succulentarum. Histoire des plantes grasses. Vol. 2. Part 17. [Plate 100. Kalanchoe laciniata DC.] A.J. Dugour & Durand, Paris, 121 pp. & 49 plates. [Plantes grasses de P.J. Redouté peintre du Muséum National D’histoire naturelle, Décrites par A.P. Decandolle, Membre de la Société des Sciences Naturelles Genève, etc. Livraison. Prix, 3o francs la Livraison.—Il en paraîtra une aque mois. A. Paris, Chez Garnery, Libraire, rue de Seine, ancien Hôtel Mirabeau, Ant. Aug. Renouard, Libraire, rue S. André-des-Arcs, n°. 42. A Paris et à Strasbourg, chez les frères Levrault, Libraires. AN X.]. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/9909#page/8/mode/1up]
  24. Compton, R.H. (1967) Plantae novae Africanae. Series XXXII. Journal of South African Botany 33: 293–304. [https://archive.org/details/journalofsouthaf33unse/page/292]
  25. Compton, R.H. (1975) Plantae novae Africanae. “Ex Africa semper aliquid novi.”—Pliny. Series XXXIII. Journal of South African Botany 41: 47–50. [https://archive.org/stream/journalofsouthaf41unse#page/46/mode/2up]
  26. Crouch, N.R., Smith, G.F., Walters, M. & Figueiredo, E. (2016) Kalanchoe winteri Gideon F.Sm., N.R.Crouch & Mich.Walters (Crassulaceae), a new species from the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism, South Africa. Bradleya 34: 217–224. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n34.2016.a9
  27. Cufodontis, G. (1965) The species of Kalanchoe occurring in Ethiopia and Somalia Republic. Webbia 19 (2): 711–744.
  28. Descoings, B. (2003) Crassulaceae. Kalanchoe. In: Eggli, U. (Ed.) Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Crassulaceae. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 143–181.
  29. Descoings, B. (2005) Sur quelques Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) hybrides de Madagascar. [Kalanchoe ×richaudii Desc. and others] Journal de Botanique de la Société de Botanique de France 30: 3–18. https://doi.org/10.3406/jobot.2005.1998
  30. Descoings, B. (2006) Le genre Kalanchoe structure et définition. Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France 33: 3–28 + two figures. https://doi.org/10.3406/jobot.2006.2006
  31. Descoings, B. (2007) Une nouvelle définition du genre Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae). Succulentes (France) 2007/2: 7–16 + two figures and two plates. [https://www.cactuspro.com/biblio/fr:succulentes]
  32. Drake del Castillo, E. (1903) Note sur les plantes recueillies par M. Guillaume Grandidier, dans le Sud de Madagascar, en 1898 et 1901. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 9: 35–46. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5024572#page/47/mode/1up]
  33. Engler, [H.G.]A. (1894) Über die Gliederung der Vegetation von Usambara und der angrenzenden Gebiete. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1894: 1–86. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/92793#page/55/mode/1up]
  34. Engler, [H.G.]A. (Ed.) (1895) Verzeichniss der bis jetzt aus Ost-Afrika bekannt gewordenen Pflanzen. Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete. Theil C. [Including (see p. 18 of the “Register”) “Kalanchoe coccinea p. 189; crenata pp. 189, A 77, 92, 108, 109; glandulosa p. 189; Holstii pp. 189, A 77; lateritia pp. 189, A 18, 40; ndorensis pp. 189, A 114; Nyikae pp. 189, A 77; obtusa pp. 189, A 32; platysepala p. 189; Stuhlmannii p. 188.”] Geographische Verlagshandlung Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, pp. 1–433, with 45 plates, “Register der Pflanzennamen”, pp. 1–40, numbered separately [A. Register der lateinischen Pflanzennamen. B. Register der nicht-lateinischen Pflanzennamen.] [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10523#page/193/mode/1up]
  35. Engler, [H.G.]A. (1907) Kalanchoe neumannii Engl. n. sp. In: [H.G.]A. Engler & L. Diels, Beiträge zur Flora von Afrika. XXX. Crassulaceae africanae. [Unter Mitwirkung der Beamten des Kön. bot. Museums und des Kön. bot. Gartens zu Berlin, sowie anderer Botaniker herausgegeben von A. Engler.] Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie [Leipzig] 39(3-4): 462–468. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/701#page/482/mode/1up]
  36. Fernandes, R.B. (1978) Crassulaceae africanae novae vel minus cognitae. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2.a LII: 165–220.
  37. Fernandes, R.B. (1980) Notes sur quelques espèces du genre Kalanchoe Adans. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2.a 53: 325–442.
  38. Fernandes, R.B. (1982) Fam. 70. Crassulaceae. In: Fernandes, R.B. & Mendes, E.J. (Eds), Conspectus florae angolensis. Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical & Junta de Investigações Científicas do Ultramar, Lisboa, 39 pp.
  39. Fernandes, R.[B.] (1983) 67. Crassulaceae. In: Launert, E. (Ed.) Flora zambesiaca 7(1). Managing Committee on behalf of the contributors to Flora zambesiaca, London, pp. 3–71.
  40. Forsskål, P. (1775) Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica. Sive descriptiones plantarum, Quas per Ægyptum inferiorem et Arabiam felicem detexit […]. Ex officina Mölleri, aulæ Typographi. Prostat apud Heineck et Faber, Hauniæ, 220 pp. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/29348#page/257/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6625
  41. Fu, Kunjun (Fu, Kun-tsun), Gilbert, M.G. & Ohba, H. (2001a) 3. Kalanchoe Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 248. 1763. Flora of China 8: 204–205. Print edition copyright Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA, and Science Press, Beijing, China, the Flora of China. Published online by the Flora of China Project. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=116917 (accessed 20 September 2023)
  42. Fu, Kunjun (Fu, Kun-tsun) & Gilbert, M.G. (2001b) 2. Bryophyllum Salisbury, Parad. Lond. t. 3. 1805. Flora of China 8: 204. Print edition copyright Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA, and Science Press, Beijing, China, the Flora of China. Published online by the Flora of China Project. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=104753 (accessed 20 September 2023)
  43. Gehrig, H., Gaußmann, O., Marx, H., Schwarzott, D. & Kluge, M. (2001) Molecular phylogeny of the genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions. Plant Science 160 (5): 827–835. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(00)00447-7
  44. Glöckner, R. (2007) Untersuchungen zu Kalanchoe pinnata. Diplomarbeit, Fachbereich Landbau / Landespflege, Studiengang Gartenbau, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden (FH). Dokument Nr. V86476 aus dem GRIN Verlagsprogramm, München, 88 pp.
  45. Guillaumin, A. (1930) Plantes nouvelles ou critiques des Serres du Muséum [pp. 577–579]. 58. Kalanchoe ×cantabrigiensis Hort. cantab. ex Guillaum. hyb. nov. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 2e sér. II: 579. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/214042#page/601/mode/1up]
  46. Hamet, R. (1907) Monographie du genre Kalanchoe. (A suivre. [To be continued]). Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2me sér., 7 (11): 869 [1]–900 [32]. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/105267#page/939/mode/1up]
  47. Hamet, R. (1908a) Monographie du genre Kalanchoe1 (Suite et fin. [Continuation and end], with Errata on p. 17). Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2me sér. 8 (1): 17 [33]–48 [64]. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/104945#page/31/mode/1up]
  48. Hamet, R. (1908b) Kalanchoe luciae sp. nov. Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, 2me sér. 8 (4): 254–257. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/104945#page/290/mode/1up]
  49. Hamet, R. (1910) Sur quelques Kalanchoe peu connus (Suite). Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France [Tome Cinquante-Septième], Quatrième serie—Tome X) Quatrième series 57: 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/00378941.1910.10832165
  50. Hamet, R. (1912a) Sur un nouveau Kalanchoe de la baie de Delagoa [Kalanchoe leblanciae]. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 11: 292–294. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19120111612
  51. Hamet, R. (1912b) Observations sur le Kalanchoe tubiflora nom. nov. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt 29: 41–44. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4986270#page/523/mode/1up]
  52. Harvey, W.H. (1862) Order LIII. Crassulaceae, D.C. VIII. Kalanchoe, Adans. In: Harvey, W.H. & Sonder, O.W. (Eds.) Flora capensis [being a systematic description of the plants of the Cape Colony, Caffraria, & Port Natal], Vol. 2. L. Reeve & Co., Ltd, Kent, pp. 378–380. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/15233#page/386/mode/1up]
  53. Haworth, A.H. (1821) Saxifragëarum enumeratio. Accedunt Revisiones plantarum succulentarum. [Kalanchöe Adanson on p. 23–24 of Revisiones plantarum succulentarum.] Venuent apud Wood, 428, Strand, [Typis R. et A. Taylor, Shoe-Lane], Londoni / In Ædibus [et ‘Typis’] R. et A. Taylor, Londoni, 62 pp. [Saxifragëarum enumeratio] + 207 pp. [Revisiones plantarum succulentarum]. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/39782#page/105/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9670
  54. Haworth, A.H. (1824) XXXI. Decas novarum Plantarum Succulentarum. (“Mr Haworth’s Decade of new Succulent Plants.”) [Crassula rotundifolia Haw. described on p. 188]. The Philosophical Magazine and Journal 64: 184–191. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/53102#page/208/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1080/14786442408644582
  55. Haworth, A.H. (1825) III. Decas quarta novarum Plantarum Succulentarum (“Mr Haworth’s Fourth Decade of new Succulent Plants.”) [Kalanchoe rotundifolia (Haw.) Haw. published on p. 31]. The Philosophical Magazine and Journal 66: 27–33. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/53098#page/49/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.1080/14786442508673917
  56. Heras Gomis, J. (2015) Kalanchoe, propiedades curativas y como consumir. Casa Bartomeus, place of publication not stated, likely Barcelona, [24] pp.
  57. Hooker, J.D. (1901) Kalanchoe bentii. Native of Southern Arabia. Nat. Ord. Crassulaceæ. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine[, comprising the plants of the Royal Gardens of Kew, and of other botanical establishments in Great Britain; with suitable descriptions;], 3rd ser., LVII (or Vol. CXXVII of the whole work [No. 675 or No. 1369 of the entire work]): t. 7765. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14255#page/55/mode/1up]
  58. Hooker, W.J. (1859) Bryophyllum proliferum. Proliferous Bryophyllum. Nat. Ord. Crassulaceae.—Octandria Monogynia. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 85: t. 5147. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14225#page/175/mode/1up]
  59. Humbert, J.-H. (1933) Kalanchoe (Crassulacées) nouveux ou peu connus de Madagascar. [Kalanchoe arborescens Humbert on p. 163, K. ambolensis Humbert on p. 164, and K. brevisepala on p. 167.] Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris sér. 2 5 (2): 163–170. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/213935#page/175/mode/1up]
  60. IPNI (2023+) The International Plant Names Index. Available from: https://www.ipni.org/ (continuously updated; accessed September 2023)
  61. Kahraman, M.E., Mendi, Y.Y., Karabıyık, Ş., Lütken, H.V. & Favero, B.T. (2022) Kalanchoë breeding: past, present and future. Ornamental Horticulture (Viçosa) 28 (1): 19–35. https://doi.org/10.1590/2447-536x.v28i1.2403
  62. Kingsbury, N. [with illustrations by C. Day] (2022) The story of flowers and how they changed the way we live. Laurence King, an imprint of The Orion Publishing Group Ltd, London, 216 pp.
  63. Kluge, M. & Brulfert, J. (1996) Crassulacean acid metabolism in the genus Kalanchoë: ecological, physiological and biochemical aspects. In: K. Winter & J.A.C. Smith (Eds), Crassulacean acid metabolism: biochemistry, ecophysiology and evolution. (Ecological Studies vol. 114). Springer, Berlin, pp. 324–335. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-79060-7_22
  64. Kluge, M., Brulfert, J., Ravelomanana, D., Lipp, J. & Ziegler, H. (1991) Crassulacean acid metabolism in Kalanchoë species collected at various climatic zones of Madagascar: a survey by δ13C analysis. Oecologia 88: 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00317586
  65. Kluge, M., Brulfert, J., Ravelomanana, D., Lipp, J. & Ziegler, H. (1993) A comparative study by δ13C-analysis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoë (Crassulaceae) species of Africa and Madagascar. Botanica Acta 106 (4): 320–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.1993.tb00755.x
  66. Kluge, M., Razanoelisoa, B., Ravelomanana D. & Brulfert, J. (1992) In situ studies of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Kalanchoë beharensis Drake del Castillo, a plant of the semi-arid southern region of Madagascar. New Phytologist 120 (3): 323–334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1992.tb01072.x
  67. Koorders, S.H. (1919) Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flora von Java No. 18. Beschreibung von Kalanchoë Schumacheri vom Idjen-Plateau und Revision der Crassulaceae von Java. (Mit 2 lithographischen Tafeln.). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 1(3): 169–180, Figures 14 and 15. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/27173#page/205/mode/1up] (text); [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/27173#page/243/mode/1up] (figures)
  68. Kuligowska Mackenzie, K., Lütken, H., Lopes Coelho, L., Dibbern Kaaber, M., Nymark Hegelund, J. & Müller, R. (2018) Chapter 19. Kalanchoë. In: van Huylenbroeck, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Plant Breeding. Vol. 11. Ornamental crops. [Editors-in-Chief, I. Rajcan & J. Vollman.] Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 453–479. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90698-0_19
  69. Lamarck, J. (1786) Encyclopédie méthodique. Botanique 2(1). Panckoucke, Paris & Plomteux, Liège, 774 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.824
  70. Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad generarelatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 1. Salvius, Stockholm, 560 pp. [Cotyledon L., nom. cons., including C. laciniata, i.e., Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC., treated on pp. 429–430]. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/13829#page/441/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.669
  71. Maire, R. (1977) Kalanchoe Adanson (1763) Rosales: Crassulaceae. In: Quézel, P.[A.] (Ed.) Flore de l’Afrique de Nord (Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, Tripolitaine, Cyrénaïque et Sahara). Vol. XIV. Rhoeadales: Cruciferae fin Resedaceae. Sarraceniales: Droseraceae. Rosales: Crassulaceae. Éditions Paul Lechevalier éditeur S.A.R.L., 19, rue Augereau, 19, Paris, pp. 239–241, 251–252, 263. [https://archive.org/details/flore-afrique-du-nord/Vol%2014%20Flore%20de%20l%27Afrique%20Du%20Nord%20Maroc%20Algerie%20Tunisie%20Tripolitaine%20Cyrenaique%20Et%20Sahara%20R-Maire-1977/page/n119/mode/2up]
  72. Mannoni, O. & Boiteau, P. (1947) Quatre Kalanchoe nouveaux de Madagascar. Notulae Systematicae. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle [Phanerogamie] [Tome XIII] 13 (1 & 2): 149–154. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7377#page/431/mode/1up]
  73. Melnik, A.V. (2010) Лечение Каланхоэ. Здоровье и Красота. Kalanchoe treatment. Магия и Жизнь—первая и единственная, Рипол-классик, Moscow, Russia, 63 pp. [In Russian]
  74. Mottet, S.J. (1911) Kalanchoe kirkii. [Including reference to the nothospecies Kalanchoe ×felthamensis Hort. Veitch.] Revue Horticole; résumé de tout ce qui parait d’intéressant en jardinage [etc.], [Paris] 83: 348–350. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/210796#page/448/mode/1up]
  75. Ohba, H. (2003) Taxonomic studies on the Asian species of the genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) 1. Kalanchoe spathulata and its allied species. Journal of Japanese Botany. [Shokubutsu Kenkyu Zasshi], Tokyo 78 (5): 247–256.
  76. Pandurangan, A., Kaur, A. & Sharma, D. (2015) Bryophyllum calycinum (Crassulaceae)—an overview. International Bulletin of Drug Research 5 (8): 51–63.
  77. Pérez, A. (2018) Kalanchoe. Una alternativa natural a la quimioterapia. 3.a edición. Ediciones Obelisco, S.L., Rubí, Barcelona, 86 pp. [“Índice” pages not numbered].
  78. Perrier de la Bâthie, [J.M.]H.[A.] (1923) Crassulacées malgache nouvelles. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 1923[xxix] (6): 452–455. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/213221#page/496/mode/1up]
  79. Perrier de la Bâthie, [J.M.]H.[A.] (1928) Observations nouvelles sur le genre Kalanchoe. Archives de Botanique II, Bulletin Mensuel, Caen 2 (2): 17–31.
  80. Persoon, C.H. (1805) Synopsis plantarum, seu enchiridium botanicum, complectens enumerationem systematicam specierum hucusque cognitorum. Pars prima. Apud Carol. Frid. Cramerum, Parisiis lutetiorum [Paris] et apud J.G. Cottam, Tubingæ [London], 546 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.638
  81. Raadts, E.[M.] (1977) The genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) in Tropical East Africa. Willdenowia 8 (1): 101–157. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3995599]
  82. Raadts, E.[M.] (1983) Cytotaxonomische Untersuchungen an Kalanchoë (Crassulaceae) 1. Kalanchoë marmorata Baker und 2 neue Kalanchoë-Arten aus Ostafrika. Willdenowia 13 (2): 373–385. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3995856]
  83. Raadts, E.[M.] (1985) Cytotaxonomische Untersuchungen an Kalanchoë (Crassulaceae) 2. Chromosomenzahlen intermediärer Formen. Willdenowia 15 (1): 157–166. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3996549]
  84. Raadts, E.[M.] (1989a) Kalanchoë deficiens var. glabra (Crassulaceae), eine neue Varietät aus Jemen. Willdenowia 18 (2): 423–426. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3996360]
  85. Raadts, E.[M.] (1989b) Cytotaxonomische Untersuchungen an Kalanchoë (Crassulaceae) 3. Chromosomenzahlen ostafrikanischer Kalanchoë-Sippen. Willdenowia 19 (1): 169–174. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3996938]
  86. Raadts, E.M. (1995) Über zwei Kalanchoë-Arten (Crassulaceae) und eine neue Varietät aus dem Jemen. Willdenowia 25 (1): 253–259. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/3996986]
  87. Rauh, W. (1993) Kalanchoe bogneri Rauh ein bemerkenswerter Neufund aus Westmadagaskar. Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten 44 (9): 181–185.
  88. Rauh, W. (1995) Quelques espèces intéressantes de Kalanchoe Adanson de Madagascar. Les Kalanchoe grimpants. Succulentes 1995 (1): 11–18.
  89. Raymond-Hamet (1912) II. Sur un Kalanchoe nouveau de l’herbier Delessert [Kalanchoe briquetii Raym.-Hamet]. Annuaire du Conservatoire & du Jardin Botaniques de Genève 15 & 16 (1911 et 1912): 141–144. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/121194#page/155/mode/1up]
  90. Raymond-Hamet (1915) Sur quelques Kalanchoe de la flore Malgache. I. Bryophyllum crenatum Baker, Kalanchoe laxiflora Baker, Kalanchoe Tieghemi Raymond-Hamet et Kalanchoe crenata Raymond-Hamet. II. Kalanchoe orgyalis Baker et Kalanchoe antanosiana Drake del Castillo. III. Kitchingia porphyrocalyx Baker, Kalanchoe porphyrocalyx Baillon et Kalanchoe sulphurea Baker. IV. Kitchingia campanulata Baker, Kitchingia parviflora Baker, Kitchingia panduriformis Baker, Kitchingia amplexicaulis Baker, Kalanchoe campanulata Baillon. Kalanchoe parviflora Baillon, Kalanchoe panduriformis Baillon et Kalanchoe amplexicaulis Baillon. Annales du Musée Colonial de Marseille, sér. 3, 3: 123–164. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22992#page/145/mode/1up]
  91. Raymond-Hamet (1916a) Sur un groupe de transition reliant le genre Kalanchoe au genre Cotyledon. Revue Générale de Botanique, Paris XXVIII: 80–84. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/45180#page/83/mode/1up]
  92. Raymond-Hamet (1916b) Sur quelques Crassulacées nouvelles. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 54, supplement 1: 1–33, with foldout. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/36212#page/403/mode/1up]
  93. Raymond-Hamet (1933) Observations sur le Kalanchoe uniflora (Stapf) Raymond-Hamet. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 80 (4): 542–548. https://doi.org/10.1080/00378941.1933.10833878
  94. Raymond-Hamet & Perrier de la Bâthie, [J.M.]H.[A.] (1913) Sur un nouveau Kalanchoe malgasche [Kalanchoe ×poincarei Raym.-Hamet & H.Perrier, pro. sp.] Bulletin de Géographie Botanique: organe mensuel de l’Académie Internationale de Botanique [22e Année (4e Série) N°. 287-288-289 Oct.-Nov.-Déc. 1913] 23: 148–151. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/3417495#page/168/mode/1up]
  95. Raymond-Hamet & Perrier de la Bâthie, [J.M.]H.[A.] (1914) Nouvelle contribution à l’étude des Crassulacées malgaches. Annales du Musée Colonial de Marseille, sér. 3 2: 113–207. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/23004#page/551/mode/1up]
  96. Raymond-Hamet & Perrier de la Bâthie, [J.M.]H.[A.] (1915) Troisième contribution a l’étude des Crassulacées Malgaches. Annales du Musée Colonial de Marseille, sér. 3 3: 63–117. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22992#page/85/mode/1up]
  97. Rebmann, N. (2017) Une nouvelle espèce de Kalanchoe Madagascar: Kalanchoe berevoensis sp. nova, N.Rebmann. Cactus & Succulentes [Le magazine de l’Association des Amis du Jardin Exotique de Monaco] 9 (1): 2–7.
  98. Richard, A. (1847) Tentamen Floræ Abyssinicæ seu Enumeratio Plantarum hucusque in plerisque Abyssiniæ provinciis detectarum et præcipue a beatis doctoribus Richard Quartin Dillon et Antonio Petit (annis 1838–1843) lectarum. Vol. 1. Apud Arthus Bertrand, Editorem, Parisiis, 472 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.334
  99. Rolfe, R.A. (1919) XVII.—Diagnoses africanae. LXXII. 1631. Kalanchoe densiflora, Rolfe [Crassulaceae]. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Royal Gardens, Kew 1919 (6 & 7): 263–267. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42571#page/276/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.2307/4111530
  100. Salisbury, R.A. (1805) The Paradisus Londinensis: or coloured figures of plants cultivated in the vicinity of the metropolis 1. William Hooker, No. 6, Frith Street, city not stated, presumably London, 157 pp. & 117 plates. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.53520
  101. Schneider, N. (1914) Les Kalanchoe et leur culture. [Kalanchoe ena Hort. ex N.Schneider on p. 22.] Revue Horticole; résumé de tout ce qui parait d’intéressant en jardinage [etc.] [Paris], Nouvelle Série, XIV: 20–22. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/197148#page/38/mode/1up]
  102. Shtein, R. & Smith, G.F. (2021a) A revision of the climbing kalanchoes (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) of Madagascar including the description of Kalanchoe sect. Invasores and K. ser. Vilana. Phytotaxa 482 (2): 93–120. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.482.2.1
  103. Shtein, R. & Smith, G.F. (2021b) Kalanchoe torrejacqii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new species in K. subg. Bryophyllum from the Namorona River valley, Madagascar. Phytotaxa 498 (3): 205–212. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.498.3.6
  104. Smith, G.F. (2019) Notes on Kalanchoe ×houghtonii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), an early hybrid between two species of K. subg. Bryophyllum. Haseltonia 26: 78–85. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.026.0111
  105. Smith, G.F. (2020a) Kalanchoe Adans. subg. Fernandesiae Gideon F.Sm. (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new subgenus from southern and south-tropical Africa. Haseltonia 27: 2–7. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.027.0101
  106. Smith, G.F. (2020b) Nomenclature of the partial infrageneric classification proposed for Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) by René C.J.E. Maire in 1976. Phytotaxa 468 (2): 231–235. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.468.2.8
  107. Smith, G.F. (2020c) Typification of the infrageneric names published in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) by Alwin Berger. Phytotaxa 453 (1): 52–54. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.453.1.6
  108. Smith, G.F. (2020d) The kalanchoes (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) of Raymond-Hamet (1890–1972). Bradleya 38: 120–140. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n38.2020.a15
  109. Smith, G.F. (2020e) Kalanchoe ×hummeliae Gideon F.Sm.: the hybrid between K. beharensis Drake and K. millotii Raym.-Hamet & H.Perrier (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Bradleya 38: 89–93. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n38.2020.a12
  110. Smith, G.F. (2021) Reinstatement of Kalanchoe [subg. Bryophyllum] sect. Alatae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) for K. porphyrocalyx and K. uniflora, two Madagascan endemics. Bradleya 39: 177–181. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n39.2021.a17
  111. Smith, G.F. (2022a) A review of the ecology and natural history of Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) in southern Africa. Bradleya 40: 161–184. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n40.2022.a15
  112. Smith, G.F. (2022b) A review of the cytotaxonomy of Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) with reference to evolutionary trends in the genus. Phytotaxa 560 (2): 153–185. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.560.2.2
  113. Smith, G.F. (2022c) Kalanchoe sect. Raveta (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) of Raymond-Hamet (1916): a long-overlooked name in K. subg. Kalanchoe. Phytotaxa 550 (2): 208–212. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.550.2.10
  114. Smith, G.F. (2022d) Date and place of publication and author attribution of the combination Kalanchoe sect. Raveta (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 560 (1): 131–134. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.560.1.12
  115. Smith, G.F. (2022e) Of paddles, soup plates, and clubs: the taxonomy of the southern and south-tropical African Kalanchoe sect. Raveta (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae; Kalanchoe subg. Kalanchoe) and its constituent species. Phytotaxa 568 (1): 8–26. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.568.1.2
  116. Smith, G.F. (2022f) Notes on Kalanchoe subg. Bryophyllum (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) and the kalanchoes of Sijfert H. Koorders (1919). Phytotaxa 549 (1): 87–96. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.549.1.7
  117. Smith, G.F. (2022g) The taxonomy of Kalanchoe marmorata Baker (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a distinctive African species, revisited. Phytotaxa 538 (2): 100–112. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.538.2.2
  118. Smith, G.F. (2022h) The taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe ×vadensis [K. blossfeldiana × K. marmorata var. somaliensis] (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), an early nothospecies produced in The Netherlands in the 1950s. Phytotaxa 561 (2): 199–209. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.561.2.8
  119. Smith, G.F. (2022i) Kalanchoe ×verdoorniae [K. luciae × K. winteri] (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new, large-growing nothospecies from South Africa. Phytotaxa 568 (1): 72–82. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.568.1.5
  120. Smith, G.F. (2022j) Identity of Kalanchoe ‘Fang’ and K. ‘Rose Leaf’, two cultivars derived from K. ×edwardii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), with notes on aspects of interspecific hybridisation in the genus. Bradleya 40: 151–160. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n40.2022.a14
  121. Smith, G.F. (2023a) A review of exotic Kalanchoe taxa (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) naturalised and cultivated in Africa and the Gulf of Guinea islands, with their nomenclature updated. Phytotaxa 613 (1): 1–28. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.613.1.1
  122. Smith, G.F. (2023b) A review of the infrageneric classifications proposed for Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) from the earliest times up to 2000. Phytotaxa 619 (1): 1–38. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.619.1.1
  123. Smith, G.F. (2023c) The ‘woody clade’ in Kalanchoe: reinstatement and amendment of K. subg. Calophygia (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) published by Bernard Marie Descoings in 2006. Phytotaxa 616 (2): 113–127. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.616.2.1
  124. Smith, G.F. (2023d) A reassessment of combinations previously proposed or published for Kalanchoe subg. Alatae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), and its valid publication at the rank of subgenus. Phytotaxa 585 (1): 61–66. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.585.1.7
  125. Smith, G.F. (2023e) Kalanchoe sect. Rhombopilosae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new section for K. rhombopilosa in the Woody Clade of K. subg. Kalanchoe. Haseltonia 30 (1): 22–26. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.030.0104
  126. Smith, G.F. (2023f) Clarifying the typification of the name Kalanchoe rhombopilosa (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 618 (2): 209–212. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.618.2.11
  127. Smith, G.F. (2023g) Kalanchoe sect. Streptanthae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new two-species section in K. subg. Bryophyllum. Phytotaxa 609 (4): 273–281. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.609.4.3
  128. Smith, G.F. (2023h) Publication of Kalanchoe sect. Trichanthae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new status for K. [infragen. unranked] Trichanthae of Alwin Berger (1930), in K. subg. Calophygia (2006 as amended in 2023). Phytotaxa 616 (2): 176–182. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.616.2.7
  129. Smith, G.F. (2023i) Taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe beharensis (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a variable, arborescent species from Madagascar, with reference to its horticultural derivatives. Phytotaxa 612 (1): 1–32. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.612.1.1
  130. Smith, G.F. (2023j) Taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe tomentosa (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a variable, completely hairy species from Madagascar. Phytotaxa 609 (4): 289–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.609.4.5
  131. Smith, G.F. & Crouch, N.R. (2021) Kalanchoe benbothae (K. subg. Fernandesiae; Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new southern African species endemic to KwaZulu-Natal in the Maputaland-Pondoland Region of Endemism. Phytotaxa 521 (2): 105–112. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.521.2.4
  132. Smith, G.F., Crouch, N.R. & Figueiredo, E. (2016) Reinstatement of Kalanchoe montana Compton (Crassulaceae), a distinctive species from the Barberton Center of Endemism, eastern southern Africa. Haseltonia 22: 64–72. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.022.0112
  133. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2018a) The infrageneric classification and nomenclature of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae), with special reference to the southern African species. Bradleya 36: 162–172. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n36.2018.a10
  134. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2018b) Kalanchoe crouchii Gideon F.Sm. & Figueiredo (Crassulaceae), a new species from the dolomites of the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Haseltonia 25: 84–90. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.025.0107
  135. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2019a) Nothospecies status for Kalanchoe auriculata, as K. ×auriculata (Crassulaceae). Phytotaxa 416 (3): 221–222. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.416.3.3
  136. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2019b) Kalanchoe porphyrocalyx var. sambiranensis, a new variety in a Madagascan Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 422 (2): 206–208. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.422.2.8
  137. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2020) Kalanchoe ×gildenhuysii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new nothospecies derived from K. millotii and K. tomentosa. Phytotaxa 442 (1): 43–46. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.442.1.8
  138. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2021a) The floristics and phytogeography of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, northern South Africa. Bradleya 39: 207–220. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n39.2021.a22
  139. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2021b) The taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe streptantha Baker (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Bradleya 39: 195–201. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n39.2021.a20
  140. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2021c) (2852) Proposal to reject the name Kalanchoe aleurodes (Crassulaceae: Kalanchooideae). Taxon 70 (6): 1371–1372. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12632
  141. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2022a) Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on the names published in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) by Drake del Castillo in 1903. Phytotaxa 547 (2): 158–166. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.547.2.3
  142. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2022b) Kalanchoe beharensis ‘Pixel’ (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), eine neue Sorte einer populären Zierpflanze aus Madagaskar. Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten 73 (11): 329–333.
  143. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2022c) Lectotypification of the name Kalanchoe wildii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 538 (2): 157–162. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.538.2.8
  144. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2023a) A review and analysis of the use of epithets in infrageneric, species, and infraspecific names in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae): trends in the plant naming game. Phytotaxa 618 (3): 213–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.618.3.1
  145. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2023b) Kalanchoe luciae. Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae. Flowering Plants of Africa 68: 70–80, plate 2387.
  146. Smith, G.F., Figueiredo, E. & Crouch, N.R. (2019b) Kalanchoe winteri. Crassulaceae. South Africa. Flowering Plants of Africa 66: 62–69, plate 2348. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n37.2019.a9
  147. Smith, G.F., Figueiredo, E. & Crouch, N.R. (2021d) Kalanchoe crouchii. Crassulaceae: Kalanchooideae. Madagascar. Flowering Plants of Africa 67: 60–68, plate 2366. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n39.2021.a16
  148. Smith, G.F., Figueiredo, E. & Van Wyk, A.E. (2019a) Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) in southern Africa. Classification, biology, and cultivation. Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier, London, San Diego, Cambridge (USA), and Oxford, x, 328 pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814007-9.00003-7
  149. Smith, G.F., Figueiredo, E. & Walker, C.C. (2021b) Kalanchoe beharensis. Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae. Madagascar. Flowering Plants of Africa 67: 50–59, plate 2365. https://doi.org/10.25223/brad.n39.2021.a20
  150. Smith, G.F., Klein, D.-P. & Shtein, R. (2021c) A revision of the Malagasy Kalanchoe subg. Kitchingia (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae): history, taxonomy, and nomenclature. Phytotaxa 507 (1): 67–80. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.507.1.3
  151. Smith, G.F. & Monro, A.M. (2022a) The nomenclature and taxonomy of Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae resolved. Phytotaxa 555 (3): 241–251. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.555.3.3
  152. Smith, G.F. & Monro, A.M. (2022b) (2908) Proposal to reject the name Crassulaceae subfam. Cotyledonoideae (Crassulaceae). Taxon 71 (4): 910–911. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12778
  153. Smith, G.F., Parihar, B. & Almeida, A.M.R. (2023) A review of growth form and plant duration (life cycle) in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) in an evolutionary and classificatory framework. Phytotaxa 592 (3): 217–254. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.592.3.3
  154. Smith, G.F. & Shtein, R. (2020) Kalanchoe ×edwardii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a nothospecies derived from K. beharensis and K. tomentosa. Phytotaxa 475 (2): 117–124. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.475.2.6
  155. Smith, G.F. & Shtein, R. (2021a) A review of horticulturally desirable characters in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae): variable and deviating vegetative and reproductive morphologies useful in breeding programmes. Haseltonia 28: 106–119. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.028.0110
  156. Smith, G.F. & Shtein, R. (2021b) Taxonomic notes on Kalanchoe porphyrocalyx (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) and its horticultural derivatives. Phytotaxa 478 (2): 225–238. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.478.2.4
  157. Smith, G.F., Shtein, R. & Klein, D.-P. (2021c) Kalanchoe subg. Alatae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a new rank for K. sect. Alatae. Phytotaxa 509 (2): 255–258. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.509.2.9
  158. Smith, G.F., Shtein, R., Klein, D.-P., Parihar, B., Almeida, A., Rodewald, S. & Kadereit, G. (2021a) Sexual and asexual reproduction in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae): a review of known and newly recorded strategies. Haseltonia 28: 2–22. https://doi.org/10.2985/026.028.0101
  159. Stapf, O. (1897) 493. Kalanchoe flammea, Stapf. [Crassulaceae]. In: Anonymous, DLXXV.—Diagnoses africanæ, X. [Species 418–599] [K. flammea Stapf on p. 266)]. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1897(128–129): 243–300. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127162#page/272/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.2307/4114938
  160. Stapf, O. (1908) 943. Kitchingia uniflora Stapf [Crassulaceae]. In: XXXIV. Diagnoses africanae: XXIII, pp. 257–262. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1908 (6): 258–259. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11624747#page/266/mode/1up] https://doi.org/10.2307/4111575
  161. Tölken, H.R. (1978) Two new species and a new combination in the genus Kalanchoe. Journal of South African Botany 44: 89–91. [https://archive.org/stream/journalofsouthaf44unse#page/90/mode/2up]
  162. Tölken, H.R. (1985) Crassulaceae. 3166, 4. Kalanchoe. 3166a, 5. Bryophyllum. In: Leistner, O.A. (Ed.) Flora of Southern Africa 14. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, place of publication not stated, likely Pretoria, pp. 61–74.
  163. Turland, N.J., Wiersema, J.H., Barrie, F.R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W.-H., Li, D.-Z., Marhold, K., May, T.W., McNeill, J., Monro, A.M., Prado, J., Price, M.J. & Smith, G.F. (2018) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Koeltz Botanical Books, Glashütten. [Regnum Vegetabile 159], 254 pp. https://doi.org/10.12705/Code.2018
  164. Vahl, M. (1791) Symbolae botanicae, sive plantarum, tam earum, quas in itinere, imprimis orientali, collegit Petrus Forskål, quam aliarum, recentius detectarum, exactiores descriptiones, nec non observationes circa quasdam plantas dudum cognitas, [...]. Pars secunda, cum tabulis XXV aeri incisis. Impensis auctoris. Excudebant Nicolaus Möller et filius, Aulae Regiae Typographi, Hauniae [København], pp. 105 [108], plates XXVI–L. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/38534914#page/205/mode/1up]
  165. Vahrmeijer, J. [with contributions by D.G. Steyn, T.W. Naudé, and T.S. Kellerman] (1981) Poisonous plants of southern Africa that cause stock losses. Tafelberg Publishers, Cape Town, 168 pp.
  166. Veitch, H.J. (1903) Kalanchoe ×felthamensis Hort. Veitch. Gardeners’ Magazine [London] 46 (no. 2585): 319 + Figure.
  167. Von Poellnitz, [J.]K.[L.A.]. (1934) XV. Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana. Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis. Centralblatt für Sammlung und Veröffentlichung von Einzeldiagnosen neuer Pflanzen 35: 159–160. [http://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/ing/Libro.php?Libro=6015] https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19340350803
  168. Watson, W. [as “W. W.”]. (1902) New and interesting plants. Kalanchoe kewensis. Ornithogalum kewense. Cymbidium rhodochilum. Pitcairnea cœrulea. The Garden (London, 1871–1927) [an illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches] 61([Volume LXI] No. 1529): 338–339. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/79275#page/356/mode/1up]
  169. Welwitsch, F.M.J. (1871a) 15. Kalanchoe velutina Welw., in J. Britten, 4. Kalanchoe Linn., Order L. Crassulaceae. In: D. Oliver (Ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa (Leguminosae to Ficoideae) 2. L. Reeve & Co., London, p. 396. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124#page/402/mode/1up]
  170. Welwitsch, F.M.J. (1871b) 17. Kalanchoe scapigera Welw., in J. Britten, 4. Kalanchoe Linn., Order L. Crassulaceae. In: D. Oliver (Ed.), Flora of Tropical Africa (Leguminosae to Ficoideae) 2. L. Reeve & Co., London, p. 397. [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124#page/403/mode/1up]
  171. Wickens, G.E. (1982) Miscellaneous notes on Crassula, Bryophyllum and Kalanchoe. Studies in the Crassulaceae for the ‘Flora of Tropical East Africa’: III. Kew Bulletin 36 (4): 665–674. https://doi.org/10.2307/4117906
  172. Wickens, G.E. (1987) Crassulaceae. In: Polhill, R.M. (Ed.) Flora of Tropical East Africa: Crassulaceae. Published on behalf of the East African Governments by A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 66 pp.
  173. Wight, R. & Walker-Arnot, G.A. (1834) Prodromus floræ peninsulæ indiæ orientalis : containing abridged descriptions of the plants found in the Peninsula of British India, arranged according to the natural system. Vol. I. Parbury, Allen, & Co., London, 480 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.252