Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2023-10-04
Page range: 274-282
Abstract views: 52
PDF downloaded: 9

The taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe ×kewensis [K. bentii × K. glaucescens] (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), a nothospecies produced at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the early 1900s

Ria Olivier Herbarium; Department of Botany; Nelson Mandela University; P.O. Box 77000; Gqeberha; 6031 South Africa
Eudicots lectotypification neotypification


The taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe ×kewensis (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) [hybrid formula: K. bentii × K. glaucescens], an old but widely available hybrid artificially produced at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the early 1900s, are discussed and clarified. The two independently validly published names K. ×kewensis Watson and K. ×kewensis N.E.Br. are neotypified and lectotypified, respectively, to make the latter an illegitimate homonym of the former. An amplified description is provided for the nothospecies, and it is illustrated.



  1. Adanson, M. (1763 [July–August]) Familles des plantes. Contenant une Préface Historike sur l’état ancien & actuel de la Botanike, & une Téorie de cette Science. II. Partie. Chez Vincent, Imprimeur-Libraire de Mgr le Comte de Provence, rue S, Severin, Paris, 640 pp. []
  2. Anonymous. (1902 [12 July]) New and interesting plants. Kalanchoe kewensis. The Garden (London, 1871–1927) [an illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches] 62 ([Volume LXII] No. 1599): 26–27. []
  3. Baker, J.G. (1881 [21 February]) Notes on a collection of flowering plants made by L. Kitching, Esq., in Madagascar in 1879 (Plates VII. & VIII.). Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 18: 264–281. []
  4. Berger, A. (1930 [May]) Crassulaceae. Unterfam. II. Kalanchoideae [sic, Kalanchooideae]. 6. Kalanchoe Adanson. 7. Kitchingia Baker. 8. Bryophyllum Salisb. In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (Eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, edn 2, 18a. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 378–386, 402–412.
  5. Brickell, C.D., Alexander, C., Cubey, J.J., David, J.C., Hoffman, M.H.A., Leslie, A.C., Malécot, V. & Xiaobai, Jin. (2016 [June]). International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants (ICNCP or Cultivated Plant Code), incorporating the Rules and Recommendations for naming plants in cultivation adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences and the International Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants. 9th edn. International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium. Scripta Horticulturae 18: 1–190.
  6. Britten, J. (1871) Order L. Crassulaceae. 4. Kalanchoe, Linn.; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. Pl. i. 659. In: Oliver, D. (Ed.) Flora of Tropical Africa (Leguminosae to Ficoideae) 2. L. Reeve & Co., London, pp. 390–398. []
  7. Brown, N.E. (1902 [14 June, Saturday]) New or noteworthy plants. Kalanchoe kewensis ×. The Gardeners’ Chronicle. Third Series 31[No. 807]: 387. []
  8. Dammann, H. (1893) Calanchoë cassiopeja Dam. (Mit einer Abbildung). Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde [Berlin] 3: 150. []
  9. Descoings, B. (2003) Kalanchoe. In: Eggli, U. (Ed.) Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Crassulaceae. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 143–181.
  10. Descoings, B. (2006) Le genre Kalanchoe structure et définition. Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France 33: 3–28 + two figures.
  11. Elliott, B. (2004) The Royal Horticultural Society. A history 1804–2004. Phillimore & Co. Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 432 pp.
  12. Fleming, J. (1902 [24 May]) Gardening of the week. Indoor garden. Kalanchoe flammea. The Garden (London, 1871–1927) [an illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches] 61 ([Volume LXI] No. 1529): 346. []
  13. Hamet, R. (1908) Monographie du genre Kalanchoe (Suite et fin.). Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sér. 2, 8: 17–48. []
  14. Heijnsdijk, T. (2022) Kalanchoe ×kewensis: het rosebloemig basterdtrosblad en Kalanchoe flammea: het vurig trosdikblad. Succulenta 101 (1): 51–66.
  15. Hooker, J.D. (1901 [March]) Kalanchoe bentii. Native of Southern Arabia. Nat. Ord. Crassulaceæ. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine[, comprising the plants of the Royal Gardens of Kew, and of other botanical establishments in Great Britain; with suitable descriptions;] 3rd ser., LVII (or Vol. CXXVII of the whole work [No. 675 or No. 1369 of the entire work]): t. 7765. []
  16. IPNI. (2023+) The International Plant Names Index. Available from: (continuously updated; accessed March 2023).
  17. Izumikawa, Y., Nakamura, I. & Mii, M. (2007) Interspecific hybridization between Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and several wild Kalanchoe species with ornamental value. Acta Horticulturae 743 (XXII International Eucarpia Symposium, Section Ornamentals, Breeding for Beauty—Part II): 59–65.
  18. Koorders, S.H. (1919 [May] [24 October 1918]) Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flora von Java No. 18. Beschreibung von Kalanchoë Schumacheri vom Idjen-Plateau und Revision der Crassulaceae von Java. (Mit 2 lithographischen Tafeln.). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 1 (3): 169–180, Figures 14 and 15. [ (text); (figures)]
  19. Kuang, Y., Lu, C.-H. & Hsu, F.-C. (2021) Restoring fertility for novel interspecific hybrids between Kalanchoe garambiensis and K. nyikae using colchicine treatment. Plants 10: a209, 16 pp.
  20. Kuligowska Mackenzie, K., Lütken, H., Lopes Coelho, L., Dibbern Kaaber, M., Nymark Hegelund, J. & Müller, R. (2018) Chapter 19. Kalanchoë. In: van Huylenbroeck, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Plant Breeding. Vol. 11. Ornamental crops. [Editors-in-Chief, I. Rajcan & J. Vollman.] Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 453–479.
  21. Salisbury, R.A. (1805 [1 June 1805]) The Paradisus Londinensis: or coloured figures of plants cultivated in the vicinity of the metropolis 1. Published by William Hooker, No. 6, Frith Street, city not stated, presumably London, 157 pp. & 117 plates.
  22. Smith, G.F. (2021) Reinstatement of Kalanchoe [subg. Bryophyllum] sect. Alatae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) for K. porphyrocalyx and K. uniflora, two Madagascan endemics. Bradleya 39: 177–181.
  23. Smith, G.F. (2022a) Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Kalanchoe bentii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 555 (2): 178–186.
  24. Smith, G.F. (2022b) The taxonomy and nomenclature of Kalanchoe ×vadensis [K. blossfeldiana × K. marmorata var. somaliensis] (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), an early nothospecies produced in The Netherlands in the 1950s. Phytotaxa 561 (2): 199–209.
  25. Smith, G.F. (2022c) A review of the cytotaxonomy of Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) with reference to evolutionary trends in the genus. Phytotaxa 560 (2): 153–185.
  26. Smith, G.F. (2023a) The ‘woody clade’ in Kalanchoe: reinstatement and amendment of K. subg. Calophygia (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) published by Bernard Marie Descoings in 2006. Phytotaxa 616 (2): 113–127.
  27. Smith, G.F. (2023b) A reassessment of combinations previously proposed or published for Kalanchoe subg. Alatae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae), and its valid publication at the rank of subgenus. Phytotaxa 585 (1): 61–66.
  28. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2018) The infrageneric classification and nomenclature of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae), with special reference to the southern African species. Bradleya 36: 162–172.
  29. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2022a) Nomenclatural notes on the economically important Flaming Katy, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 549 (1): 104–110.
  30. Smith, G.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2022b) Clarifying the typification of the name Kalanchoe orgyalis (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). Phytotaxa 543 (1): 99–102.
  31. Smith, G.F., Figueiredo, E. & Van Wyk, A.E. (2019) Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) in southern Africa. Classification, biology, and cultivation. Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier, London, San Diego, Cambridge (U.S.A.), and Oxford, 328 pp.
  32. Smith, G.F. & Hankey, A. (2021) Kalanchoe ×forbesiae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) derived from K. lubangensis × K. sexangularis: towards improved horticultural material. Phytotaxa 528 (5): 290–300.
  33. Smith, G.F. & Monro, A.M. (2022a) The nomenclature and taxonomy of Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae resolved. Phytotaxa 555 (3): 241–251.
  34. Smith, G.F. & Monro, A.M. (2022b) (2908) Proposal to reject the name Crassulaceae subfam. Cotyledonoideae (Crassulaceae). Taxon 71 (4): 910–911.
  35. Smith, G.F. & Shtein, R. (2021) A review of horticulturally desirable characters in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae): variable and deviating vegetative and reproductive morphologies useful in breeding programmes. Haseltonia 28: 106–119.
  36. Smith, G.F., Shtein, R., Klein, D.-P., Parihar, B., Almeida, A., Rodewald, S. & Kadereit, G. (2021) Special Review. Sexual and asexual reproduction in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae): a review of known and newly recorded strategies. Haseltonia 28: 2–22.
  37. Stapf, O. (1897 [August and September]) 493. Kalanchoe flammea, Stapf. [Crassulaceae]. In: Anonymous, DLXXV.—Diagnoses Africanæ, X. [Species 418–599]. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1897 (128–129): 243–300. []
  38. “T.”. (1902 [2 August]) Notes of the week. Kalanchoe kewensis. The Garden (London, 1871–1927) [an illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches] 62 ([Volume LXII] No. 1602): 74. [“T.” possibly refers to Harry Higgott Thomas (1876–2 July 1956); see main text for a discussion.]
  39. Thiers, B. (2023+) Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (continuously updated; accessed March 2023).
  40. Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. (1903 [March]) Morphological notes. IX. A Kalanchoe hybrid [Kalanchoe ×kewensis Watson]. + Plates XXI–XXIII [after p. 441]. Annals of Botany 17 (no. LXVI): 435–441. []
  41. Trager, J.N. (2016) The Huntington Botanical Gardens presents the 2016 offering of International Succulent Introductions. [Three Kalanchoe taxa, including ISI 2016-14. Kalanchoe ‘Kewensis’ W. T. Dyer [sic, W.Watson], on pp. 118–119.] Cactus and Succulent Journal (U.S.) 88 (3): 110–121.
  42. Turland, N.J., Wiersema, J.H., Barrie, F.R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D.L., Herendeen, P.S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W.-H., Li, D.-Z., Marhold, K., May, T.W., McNeill, J., Monro, A.M., Prado, J., Price, M.J. & Smith, G.F. (2018) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Koeltz Botanical Books, Glashütten. [Regnum Vegetabile 159], 254 pp.
  43. Watson, W. [as “W.W.”]. (1902 [24 May]) New and interesting plants. Kalanchoe kewensis. Ornithogalum kewense. Cymbidium rhodochilum. Pitcairnea cœrulea. The Garden (London, 1871–1927) [an illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches] 61 ([Volume LXI] No. 1529): 338–339. []