A synopsis of the Encyclia ambigua complex, a member of the E. ceratistes clade, is presented. It is composed of three species, namely E. ambigua, E. trachychila, and E. dressleri. These taxa are restricted to the southern part of Megamexico in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua and occur mostly in oak-pine or broadleaf evergreen forests, or more rarely, in tropical dry forests at elevations of (600–)1,250–1,700(–2,000) m. The recently described Encyclia alborubra is treated as a synonym of E. ambigua. Iconography pertinent to the understanding of the species, relevant discussion, and a key to the taxa involved are provided. In addition, we provide notes on Encyclia virens, attempting to decipher this nomenclatural puzzle, and on Epidendrum alatum Batem., to present a protologue that predates the one that is usually cited.